A Detailed Introduction to CNC Lathe that Must Not Be Missed

CNC lathe is also called a computer numerical control machine tool, which is an automated machine tool equipped with a program control system. The control system can logically process the program with control codes or other symbolic instructions, and decode it, so that the machine tool can operate and process parts.


1. What is a CNC machining center?

CNC machining machines can be divided into: lathes, milling machines, drilling machines, etc. According to different processing complexity, it can be divided into three-axis, four-axis, five-axis machines, etc. The parts are processed by a computer-controlled CNC machine tool. The working principle of a CNC machine tool is like a robot. It must be used in conjunction with the program and follow all instructions.


2. Compared with ordinary machine tools, CNC machine tools have the following characteristics:

①It has high processing precision and stable processing quality;

②It can perform multi-coordinate linkage and can process parts with complex shapes;

③When machining parts are changed, generally only the CNC program is changed, which can save production preparation time;

④The machine tool has high precision and high rigidity, can choose a favorable processing amount, and has high productivity (generally 3~5 times of ordinary machine tools);

⑤The machine tool has a high degree of automation, which can reduce labor intensity;

⑥ It has higher requirements for the quality of operators and higher technical requirements for maintenance personnel.


3. CNC lathe generally consists of the following parts:

① Host: It is the main body of the CNC machine tool, including the machine body, column, spindle, feed mechanism and other mechanical parts. It is a mechanical part used to complete various cutting processes.

② Numerical control device: It is the core of numerical control machine tool, including hardware (printed circuit board, CRT display, key box, paper tape reader, etc.) and corresponding software. It is used to input digitized part programs, and complete the storage of input information, data transformation, interpolation operation and various control functions.

③ Drive device: It is the drive component of the CNC lathe actuator, including the spindle drive unit, feed unit, spindle motor and feed motor. It realizes spindle and feed drive through electric or electro-hydraulic servo system under the control of numerical control device. When several feeds are linked, the processing of positioning, straight line, plane curve and space curve can be completed.

④ Auxiliary device: It index control some necessary supporting parts of the machine tool to ensure the operation of the CNC machine tool, such as cooling, chip removal, lubrication, lighting, and monitoring. It includes hydraulic and pneumatic devices, chip removal devices, exchange tables, CNC turntables and CNC indexing heads, as well as cutting tools and monitoring and testing devices.

⑤ Programming and other ancillary equipment: It can be used to program and store parts outside the machine.


At present, CNC lathe is mainly used for large-scale parts processing, and its processing methods include car outer circle, boring, car plane and so on. It can be programmed and is suitable for mass production. Its production process is highly automated.

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