Components of Lathe Machine

Spindle box: also known as headstock, and its main task is to transfer the rotary motion from the main motor through a series of speed change mechanisms so that the spindle can get the required two kinds of different rotation speeds, and at the same time, the headstock distributes part of the power to transmit the motion to the feed box. The spindle in the headstock is the key part of the lathe. The stability of the spindle running on the bearing directly affects the processing quality of the workpiece. Once the rotation accuracy of the spindle decreases, the use-value of the machine tool will be reduced.


Feeding box: also known as feed change unit, and the feeding box is equipped with a speed change mechanism for feed motion. Adjusting the speed change mechanism can obtain the required feed rate or pitch, and the motion is transmitted to the tool carrier through the smooth screw or lead screw for cutting.


Lead screw and smooth screw: used to connect the feed box and the slide box, and transfer the movement and power of the feed box to the slide box, so that the slide box can obtain longitudinal linear motion. The lead screw is specially used for turning all kinds of threads. When turning other surfaces of the workpiece, only a smooth screw is used instead of a lead screw. We should distinguish the difference between light screw and lead screw according to the content of the slide box.


Sliding box: it is the control box of the feed movement of the lathe machine . It is equipped with a mechanism that changes the rotation movement of the smooth screw and leads screw into linear motion of tool rest. The longitudinal feed motion, transverse feed movement, and rapid movement of tool rest are realized through smooth screw drive. The tool carrier is driven to make longitudinal linear motion through the lead screw, so as to turn thread.


Tool rest: it is composed of two layers of the slide plate (medium and small slide plate), bed saddle, and tool rest body. It is used to install a turning tool and make a longitudinal, transverse, or oblique movement with the motor tools.


Tailstock: it is installed on the bed guide rail and moves longitudinally along the guide rail to adjust its working position. The tailstock is mainly used to install the rear center to support long workpieces. It can also be used to install drill bits and reamers for hole processing.


Lathe bed: it is a large basic part of the lathe with high precision guide rail (mountain guide rail and flat guide rail). It is used to support and connect all parts of the lathe, and ensure that the parts have an accurate relative position when working.


Cooling device: the cooling device mainly sprays the cutting fluid in the water tank to the cutting area after pressurized by the cooling water pump, so as to reduce the cutting temperature, wash away the chips and lubricate the machined surface, so as to improve the service life of the cutting tool and the surface processing quality of the workpiece.

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