Horizontal lathe machine is a kind of tool used to cut different contours on rotating steel or wooden workpieces. It is usually composed of a precision machined body or base, which has a driving mechanism, a headstock at one end and a supporting tailstock at the other end. The workpiece is firmly fixed in the headstock and quickly rotates around its own axis, and then a suitable machine tool is placed on the workpiece to cut the desired contour. Horizontal lathe machines are widely used in high-precision machining operations and come in various sizes and designs.
Horizontal lathe machine can be used to cut the cylindrical shape of billets or to cut decorative contours, such as those seen on table legs, lamp stands, pens and chess pieces. Precision engineering parts (such as engine parts, ball joints, medical equipment and aircraft parts) can also be turned on a horizontal lathe machine. In fact, almost all steel and wood products with shoulders, tapers, grooves or other complex contours can be produced on these machines, and even hollow cup shapes can be turned on a lathe.
There are two main types of horizontal lathe machines: woodworking lathe and steel or lathe.
1. Woodworking lathe is usually the simpler of the two, consisting of a bed, a headstock, a tailstock and a tool holder. The wooden workpiece is firmly fixed between the headstock and the tailstock through the centering spindle. The headstock is driven by a motor to rotate the workpiece, while the headstock rotates freely. A suitable tool is supported on the tool holder and pushed by hand to cut into the workpiece.
2. The working principle of a steel or lathe is the same, consisting of the tail and headstock components at either end of the central body. The main difference between the two types of lathes is the tool advancement assembly and the headstock. The steel slatted headstock is equipped with jaws for fixing the workpiece instead of a spur gear spindle. The engine horizontal lathe tool assembly consists of a saddle that straddles the bed base, and is equipped with a composite material holder and a tool holder. The entire assembly automatically advances along the lathe shaft by means of a lead screw driven by the lathe motor.